It is dominated by the Empire of Kelesh, a vast kingdom that extends as far as Avistan. Qadira is one of its many, many vassal states or satrapies. The second most renowned nation of Casmaron is the impossible kingdom of Vudra. Few travellers from Avistan ever actually see Vudra as the journey to reach it almost unimaginably long and crosses most of Casmaron. Vudra is known as "the impossible kingdom" because of the stories of those who visit it. It is said to be a land of 10,000 gods and 100,000 miracles. The tales told of Vudra are normally beyond belief even to the most open-minded of listeners. 
The Padishah Empire of Kelesh, to use its full title, is a sprawling empire that dominates south central Casmaron. The size of this empire can not be overstated, with half-a-dozen satrapies the size of countries separating Qadira from the imperial heartland of Kelesh. Each satrapy controlled by Kelesh is like an individual nation forced to pay heed to the decrees of the empire. Particularly in the north, the grip of the empire upon its people is loosened. Though they pay their respect to their distant lords and worship many of the same gods these horselords of the northern steppes also have their own unique belief in Namzaruum.
Nations of Casmaron
The fantastic sites of Casmaron are too numerous to list them all—Vudra alone supposedly boasts thousands. The ruins of ancient civilisations such as the ancient Ulfen empire of Iobaria, Ninshabur (destroyed millennia ago by the Tarrasque), Kaskkari and Iblydos are littered across the vast continent. Despite this, the most wondrous and simultaneously terrifying sight in Casmaron is the Pit of Gormuz, a twenty mile wide chasm that pierces the heart of Golarion and supposedly drops all the way down to where the Gods imprisoned Rovagug in the heart of the world.